Music of poetry
Much in the poetic works structure brings closer together this kind of art with music. A distinct rhythm, regular alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables, ordered dimensionality of poems, their emotional saturation make poetry by the native sister of the musical pieces. Each verse has its musical form, its rhythm and melody. It is possible to expect, that in the poem constitution some features of the musical pieces, a regularity of musical harmony, and consequently, the golden proportion will be revealed themselves.
Let's begin from the poem size, that is, from a number of the poem lines. It seemed that this poem's parameter can change arbitrary. However it was appeared, what it is not so. For example, Pushkin's poems analysis made by Vasutinsky showed, that poem's sizes are distributed rather no uniformly; it was appeared that Pushkin obviously prefers the sizes in 5, 8, 13, 21 and 34 lines (Fibonacci numbers!).
It was noticed by many researchers that the poems are similar to the musical pieces; in them also there are culmination points, which divide the poem in the golden proportion. Studying Pushkin's poem "Shoemaker" (see the Russian version of our Museum) Vasutinsky revealed the following. The poem consists of 13 lines. In it two semantic parts can be selected, the first part in 8 lines and the second one (the parable moral) in 5 lines (note that the numbers of 13, 8, 5 are Fibonacci numbers!).
One of the last Pushkin's poems "Not dearly I appreciate the high-sounding rights …" consists of 21 lines and in it two semantic parts are selected in 13 and 8 lines (Fibonacci numbers!).
The analysis of the famous novel "Eugeniy Onegin" made by Vasutinsky represents the doubtless interest. This novel consists of 8 chapters; each chapter consists, on the average, of about 50 verses. The eighth chapter is the most perfect and the most saturated emotionally. This chapter consists of 51 verses. Together with the letter by Eugeny to Tatjana the size of this chapter corresponds precisely to Fibonacci number of 55!
"Eugeny's declaration in love to Tatjana is the chapter culmination (the line "To turn pale and to die away ... it is a bliss! ". This line divides all chapter of 8 into two parts, the former consists of 477 lines and the latter 295 lines. Their ratio is equal to 1.617! We can see the finest conformity to the golden proportion! This fact is the great harmony miracle created by Pushkin's genius!".
Rosenov made the analysis of many poetic works by Lermontov, Shiller, Tolstoy and also found out in them the "golden section".
The famous Lermotov's poem "Borodino" is divided into two parts: the introduction addressed to the story-teller and consisting only of one stanza ("Say, the uncle, you see not without reason ...") and the main part presenting the independent whole, which is broken into two equivalent parts. In the former of them it is described with rising pressure the combat expectation, in the latter the combat by itself with the gradual reduction of straining to the end of the poem. The border between these parts is the culmination point of the poem and divides them by the golden section.
The main part of the poem consists of 13 verses by 7 lines, that is, of 91 lines. By dividing of it by the golden section (91 : 1.618 = 56.238) we are convinced, that the division point corresponds to the beginning of the 57th lines, where there is the short phrase: "Well was day!". Just this phrase represents the "culmination point of the exited expectation", completing the first part of the poem (the expectation of the combat) and opening its second part (the description of the combat).
Thus, the golden section plays in poetry the rather interpreted role, selecting the culmination points of the poems.
Many researchers of Shota Rustavely's poem "King in the tiger skin" note the exclusive harmonicity and melodiousness of his poem.
In opinion of the Georgian scientist academician Zereteli, these properties of Rusatavely's poem arise thanks to conscientious usage by the poet of the golden section both in the formation of the poetic form and in the construction of its verses.
Rustaveli's poem consists of 1587 stanzas; each of them consists of four lines. Each line consists of 16 syllables divided into two equal parts, the half-lines consisting of 8 syllables. All half-lines are divided into two segments of two kinds: the segment of A is the half-line with equal segments and with even number of syllables (4 + 4); the segment of B is the half-line with asymmetrical division into two unequal parts (5 + 3 or 3 + 5). Thus, we can see the following ratio 3:5:8 in the half-line of the kind of B; let's remind that the numbers 3, 5, 8 are Fibonacci numbers and that their ratios are close to the golden proportion.
It is established, that in Rustaveli's poem 863 of 1587 stanzas are constructed according to the golden section principle.
The cinematograph, the new kind of art, which absorbed the dramatic art, painting, and music, was born presently. In the outstanding cinematographic works it is legitimately to search for manifestation of the golden section. The Russian film-director Sergey Eisenstein was the first who used the golden section in his world-known masterpiece "Armadillo by Potemkin". In the construction of this film he embodied the main harmonic principle, the golden section. As Eisenstein says, the red flag on the mast of the revolted armadillo (the apogee point of the film) goes up in the golden section time point, which is counted out from the film end.