How the alive organisms are arranged? The partitioning "by Fibonacci" is rather widespread among different kinds of animals with many extremities, insects, turtles and higher animals. During evolution the animal body was sectioned into three parts: head, chest and belly. Among the modern animals with many extremities it is possible to call, for example, spiny lobster having 5 pairs of legs, 5 pens on the tail, each leg consists of 5 parts, and the potbelly consists of 5 segments. The scorpion's body consists of two parts, the potbelly and the tail. The scorpion have 5 pairs of extremities, its potbelly has 8 segments and its tail has 5 pens. Let's remind, that the numbers of 5 and 8 are Fibonacci numbers. The shell of modern crabs consists of 13 plates and the shell of fossil crabs contained 8 plates. The insect body also consists of three parts: the head, the chest and the potbelly. The chest usually consists of three segments to with three pairs of legs and two pairs of wings are fastened. For some insects the potbelly consists of three segments, there are 4 pairs of extremities consisting of 8 parts, 8 feeler's organs go out from the oral hole. The majority of spiders has 5 pairs of extremities, each of which consists of 5 parts, the potbelly is divided into 8 segments. The mosquito has 3 pairs of legs, the potbelly is divided into 8 segments, it has on the head 5 feeler-antennas. For the cabbage fly the potbelly consists of 5 parts, it has 3 pairs of legs, and its larva is divided into 8 segments. Caterpillars of many insects contain 13 segments. Many insects (for example, butterfly, dragonfly) have in the horizontal cut simple asymmetrical forms based on the golden section. The dragonfly has a very perfect form constructed under the law of the golden proportion: the ratio of the tail and trunk lengths is equal to the ratio of the overall length to the tail length. For all animal world there are typical the symmetry of the forms and an availability of the pair organs, partitioning of body into three parts (head, chest, potbelly), partitioning of extremities into 3 or 5 parts and of the potbelly into 3 parts. The form constitution of the representatives of more high-level animals also is subjected to Fibonacci numbers. So the shell of turtle has 13 cornea plates, 5 of them are in the center, and 8 on the boundaries, it has 5 fingers on the paws, and the backbone contains 34 vertebras. For gavial crocodile 55 cornea plates are arranged along the trunk. On the body of Caucasian big-nosed viper there are 55 dark spots but in the skeleton of the Gabon viper there are 144 vertebras. The highest animals of our planet, the mammals, have similar regularity of body partitioning. A bone number of the skeleton for diverse animals is close to 13 (whale, camel, deer, tour etc.), a number of vertebras is close to 34 and 55. So, the gigantic deer has 34 vertebras, the whale has 55 ones. The three-linked system of extremity partitioning is characteristic for domestic animals: shoulder, forearm, foot. The foot consists also of three bone links. A number of vertebras for many domestic animals is close or equal to 55, a number of edge pairs is equal to 13. A number of thoracic of the pig, grapnel, rabbit is close to 89, and total number of bones for domestic animals together with dens and smallest bones of the acoustical vehicle approaches to 233. A number of dens pairs is close to Fibonacci numbers: for the dog, pig, horse - 21 ± 1, for the rabbit - 14. The same tendency is looked for many wildings: for hyena - 34, for dolphins - 233. After studying of a constitution of backboned animals the Russian scientist Petoukhov came to a conclusion that the construction of their extremities descended under effect of two factors: the Laws of the golden proportion and organism adaptation to the life mode. He wrote: "The Laws of the golden proportion determined the main schedule, the main idea of extremity design and the concrete conditions of each animal existence stipulated deviations and fluctuations from this schedule for all diversity of the existing forms constitution". Thus, the golden section, Fibonacci numbers and pentagonal symmetry are an indisputable factor of the alive creative growth. But the phenomenon of "phyllotaxis" is even more convincing demonstration of the golden section development in plant's world. And we will tell about this at the next page of our Museum. Follow us! |