The "Golden" spirals and "pentagonal" symmetry in the alive Nature
The "golden" spirals are widespread widely in the biological world. As it was noted above, the animal horns grow only from one end. This growth in realized on the equiangular spiral. It was proved that among different kinds of spirals showing in horns of rams, goats, antelopes and other horned animals the "golden" spirals meets most often.
The spirals widely show themselves in the alive nature. The plant tendrils are became twisted by spirals, the growth of tissues in tree's trunks is realized by spiral there, the sunflower seeds are arranged on the spirals, the helical motions are watched at growth of the roots and sprouts. Apparently, in it the heredity of planet organization shows, and it is necessary to search for its roots on the cell-like and molecular level.
The majority of shells have spiral form.
Studying construction of shells, the scientists paid attention to expediency of the forms and surfaces of shells: the internal surface is smooth, the outside one is fluted. The mollusk body is inside shell and the internal surface of shells should be smooth. The outside edges of the shell augment a rigidity of shells and, thus, increase its strength. The shell forms astonish by their perfection and profitability of means spent on its creation. The spiral's idea in shells is expressed in the perfect geometrical form, in surprising beautiful, "sharpened" design.
For some mollusks a number of parts reshaping conical shells corresponds to Fibonacci numbers. So, the shell of foraminifer has 13 parts, a number of chambers of the shell of nautilus is equal to 34, the shell of gigantic tridacne is collected in 5 folds. These and many others examples show that shell constructions of many fossil and modern mollusks prefer Fibonacci numbers: 5, 8, 13, 21, 34.
Nikolay Vasutinski emphasizes in his book "The Golden Proportion" that "the growth "by Fibonacci" gave large capabilities for originating of miscellaneous organisms. In partitioning "by Fibonacci" it was expressed both the geometrical progression of growth (with exponent equal to the golden proportion) and symmetry of similarity, and unity of continuous and discrete organization".
In the alive nature the forms based on the "pentagonal" symmetry (marine asters, marine hedgehogs, flowers) are widespread widely. The flowers of water lily, wild rose, hawthorn, small nail, pear, apple, strawberry and many other flowers are five-petal. The flower of the Chinese rose with the brightly expressed "pentagonal" symmetry is shown below.
However the marine asters own not only by the "pentagonal" symmetry. In the Pacific ocean there are the marine asters with 8 and 13 rays. The marine aster "sunflower" has 33 rays, and "fiery" aster has 55 rays. Thus, for many marine asters a number of rays corresponds to Fibonacci numbers or close to them numbers.
An availability of five fingers on man's hand or bone's embryos on the organs of a man and many animals are by additional testimony of the pentagonal form and the golden section spreading in morphology of the biological world. And we will develop this idea at the next pages of our Museum. Follow us!