About the alive and nonliving nature
The nature perceived as all world in a diversity of its forms consists as though of two parts: the alive and nonliving nature. What is difference between them?
For products of the nonliving nature it is significant a high stability, gentle variability if to judge in scales of human life. A man is born, lives, grows old, dies, and the granite mountains remain the same and the planets are gyrated around of the Sun the same as and in Pythagor's times.
The world of the alive nature seems to us by absolutely diverse, mobile, mutable and is surprising miscellaneous. The life demonstrates to us a fancy carnival of a diversification and originality of creative combinations!
The world of the nonliving nature is first of all the world of symmetry giving stability and beauty to its creations. The world of the alive nature is first of all the world of harmony, in which the law of the golden section" acts.
The so-called "Principle of the Least Action" acts in the world of the nonliving nature. Pursuant to this "Principle" the system permanently passes from the less steady state to the most stable state. Thus any body aims to accept such form, at which it provides the minimum of surface energy compatible with external orientating forces. The symmetry of generating environment, in which the physical body is formed, is superimposed on symmetry of the body. The form of the body saves those elements of the own symmetry, which coincide with the overlapped with them elements of environment symmetry.
All systems of the inorganic world are subjected to the "Principle of the Least Action". In the biological and plant world this principle has not such widespread occurrence. Any animal or plant aim to create such morphological envelope, which is favorable for reproduction and is suitable for resistance to environment.
The "Principle of Matter Economy" comes into effect in this case; the latter does not act in the inorganic world. A tendency of the alive organisms to economies of the bone giving the maximum of strength in all necessary directions is the bright example to this.
Besides, the alive organisms show only by one appropriate to them phenomenon, the phenomenon of growth. The inorganic crystals are augmented by addition of the identical elements; the alive organism grows by "absorption" going from inside and directed out.
We have also one more fundamental distinction: the molecular elements of the inorganic matter do not vary during life time of the given aggregate, whereas the elements forming the living tissue burn down, leave and are renewed, saving a general trace of the organism form during growth. For example, a shell (external skeleton of marine organisms) grows, saving the initial form despite of the asymmetrical growth; the horns of animal grow only from one end.
A long time it was considered, that the objects of the nonliving nature (for example, crystals) differ from the alive objects (for example, plants, flowers) by the kind of the used symmetry. By answering the question: "Where is a border between the alive and inorganic nature?" many known specialists in the field of symmetry and crystallography pay attention to the fact, that this difference consists in usage in the alive organisms so-called "pentagonal" symmetry connected with the golden section. In this connection the well known Russian scientist Shubnikov writes so:
"As to the alive organisms, we have not for them such theory, which could answer the question what kinds of symmetry are compatible or incompatible to existence of living material. But we can note here that remarkable fact that among the representatives of the alive nature the "pentagonal" symmetry meets more often".
A helicity of forms is one of the typical characteristics of plants. Still Goethe who was not only the great poet but also the naturalist considered the helicity as one of fundamental indications of all alive organisms, manifestation of the most secret nature of the life.
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