Pythagor is possibly the most celebrated person in the history of science. This name is known to each man who studied geometry and was aware the Pythagorean theorem.
The famous philosopher and scientist, religious and ethical reformer, influential politician, "demigod" in eyes of his schoolboys and charlatan, under the recalls of some of his contemporaries - such characteristics have Pythagor in the antique literature. The coins with his image exhausted in 430-420 BC testify to exclusive popularity of Pythagor already at his life. For the 5-th centuries BC it is a case unprecedented! Pythagor was the first among the Greek philosophers who was granted with a special book dedicated to him.
His scientific school is internationally known. He organized it in Croton, the Greek colony in the north of Italy. The Pythagorean school, the "Pythagorean union", was simultaneously both philosophical school, and political party, and religious brotherhood. The status of the "Pythagorean union" was very severe. Each, who entered it, was failed from a personal property for the benefit of the Union, undertook to not spill a blood, to not use meat nutrition, to protect a secret of the doctrine of their teacher. It was prohibited to the members of the Union to train other people for reward.
The Pythagorean doctrine concerned harmony, geometry, number theory, astronomy etc. But the Pythagorean appreciated most of all the results obtained in theory of harmony, wherefore they confirmed their idea that "the numbers determine everything ". Some ancient scientists assure that the concept of the golden section Pythagor borrowed from the Babylonians.
Many great mathematical discoveries are assigned to Pythagor undeservedly. For example, the famous geometric "theorem of squares" ("Pythagorean theorem") given a ratio between the sides of a rectangular triangle was known for the Egyptians, the Babylonians and the Chinese's long before Pythagor.
However discovering of the "incommensurable line segments" is considered as the main mathematical discovery of Pythagoreans. Investigating the ratio of the diagonal to the side of the square, Pythagoreans proved that its ratio can not be expressed as the ratio of two natural numbers, that is, this ratio is "irrational". This discovery became a reason of the first crisis in the history of mathematics. Besides the Pythagorean doctrine about the integer basis of the all existing after that discovery could not be recognized as true. Therefore Pythagoreans attempted to keep secret of this discovery and created the legend about death of one of the Pythagoreans who dares to divulge the secret of this discovery.
It was assigned to Pythagor also a number of other geometrical discoveries, namely: the theorem of the sum of the triangle interior angles; the problem about segmentation of the plane into regular polygons (triangles, squares and hexagons). There is an opinion that just Pythagor constructed "space" figures, i.e. five regular polyhedrons.
In what is a cause of so large Pythagor popularity already at his life? The answer this question is given by some interesting facts from his biography placed in the "Biographic dictionary of the persons in the field of mathematics" (the writers are Borodin and Bugaj, 1979). In the article dedicated to Pythagor it is noticed that "according to the legend Pythagor to be acquainted with wisdom of eastern scientists gone away in Egypt and lived there 22 years. Well by taking possession all sciences of the Egyptians, including mathematics, he moved to Babylon, where lived 12 years and was acquainted with scientific knowledge of the Babylonian priests. The legends assign to Pythagor a visit of India. It is very probably as Ionia and India then had business relations. By returning home (about 530 BC) Pythagor attempted to organize his philosophical school. However on unknown causes he soon abandons Samos and settles in Croton (Greek colony in the north of Italy). Here Pythagor organized the school, which acted almost thirty years".
The fact that Pythagor stayed really a long time in Egypt and obtained there the rank of the "Consecrated" or "Dedicated" to the secret of Egyptian science is confirmed also by other sources. For example, in the book by ╠anly P. Hall "An Encyclopedic Outline of Masonic, Hermetic, Cabbalistic and Rosicrucian Symbolical Philosophy " the chapter " the Mystical Christianity " at the description of the Jesus history it is asserted, that "Jesus, without doubts, was consecrated in the same temple Melchizedec where six centuries prior to this Pythagor was consecrated ".
Thus, the outstanding role of Physagor in development of the Greek science consists of fulfillment of historical mission of knowledge transmission from the Egyptian and Babylonian priests to the culture of Ancient Greece. Just thanks to Pythagor who was, without any doubt, one of the most learned thinkers of his time the Greek science received a huge volume of knowledge in the field of philosophy, mathematics and natural sciences, which by getting to favorable medium of the Ancient Greek culture promoted to its rapid development and augmentation.
Developing the idea about Pythagor's historical role in development of the Greek science, Igor Shmelev in the brochure "Phenomenon of Ancient Egypt " wrote the following:
"His world renowned name the Croton teacher obtained after the rite of "consecration". This name is compounded of two halves and means "Elucidated Harmony" wherefore "Pythians" in Ancient Greece were pagan priests predicted a future and Gor in Ancient Egypt personified harmony. So on the decline of their civilization Egyptian priests by transmitting their secret knowledge to the representative of gained forces civilization symbolically cemented in one person the Union of man's and woman's origins, the bastion of Harmony".