Mystery of the Egyptian Calendar

Russian proverb states: "A time is an eye of a history ". Everything that exists in the Universe: the Sun, the Earth, asters, planets, known and unknowns worlds, alive and nonliving nature, - all this has time-space measurement. The time is measured by observation of periodically recurring processes of definite duration.

In the remote antiquity the people noted that the day is always replaced by the night, and the seasons alternate stringently: after winter there comes spring, after spring summer, after summer autumn In looking up of the solution of these phenomena a man paid attention to celestial heavenly bodies, the Sun, the Moon, asters, and on strict periodicity of their movement on firmament. It was the first observations, which preceded to the origin of astronomy, one of the most ancient sciences.

The astronomy put in the basis of time measurement of the celestial bodies motions, which reflect three factors: rotation of the Earth about the axis, reversal of the Moon around the Earth and motion of the Earth around the Sun. The miscellaneous concepts of a time depend on the fact, which of these phenomena is used for the time measurement. The astronomy knows a stellar time, solar time, local time, zone time, nuclear time etc.

The Sun, as well as all remaining heavenly bodies, participates in motion on the firmament. Except for the diurnal motion, the Sun has so-called year motion, and all path of the year Sun motion of the firmament is called as an ecliptic. If, for example to fix an arrangement of constellations at any definite vesper moment of time and then to repeat this observation in each month, the diverse pictures of the palate will be presented for us. The view of the sidereal palate changes continuously: each season has the own picture of the vesper constellations and each such picture in one year is repeated. Therefore, on expiration of one year the Sun concerning to the asters returns to the initial place.

To be oriented conveniently in the stellar world the astronomers sectioned all firmament into 88 constellations. Each of them has its name. Among 88 constellations the special place in astronomy is taken with those, through which the ecliptic passes. These cancellations, except for specific names, have generalized title - "zodiacal" (from the Greek word " zoop " - animal), and also wide known all over the world signs and miscellaneous allegorical images included to the calendar systems.

It is known, that during movement on the ecliptic the Sun intersects 13 cancellations. However astronomers found necessary to divide the Sun path not on 13, and into 12 parts, by joining the cancellations of Scorpions and Dragon in the unified cancellation under the common name of Scorpions.

The special science called as chronology is engaged with problems of time measurement. It underlies all calendar systems constructed by mankind. A creation of calendars in the antiquity was one of the major problems of astronomy.

What means the world of "calendar" and what "calendar systems" do exist? The word of "calendar" descends from the Latin word "calendarium", that meant "debt book"; in such books in the Ancient Rome the first days of each month, "calendas", which obligated to pay percents, are noticed.

Since the most ancient times in the countries of Eastern and South-East Asia at compiling of calendars a large attention was given with periodicities of motion of the Sun, the Moon, and also the Jupiter and the Saturn, two gigantic planets of the Solar system. There is a basis to guess, that the idea of creation of the Jupiter calendar with celestial symbolism of the 12-year's animal cycle is connected to the rotation of Jupiter, which makes its full revolution around the Sun approximately for 12 years (11,862 years). On the other hand, Saturn, the second gigantic planet of the Solar system, makes its full revolution around the Sun approximately for 30 years (29, 458 years). Wishing to agree the motion cycles of the gigantic planets, the Ancient Chinese's came to the idea to introduce the 60-year's cycle of the Solar system. During this cycle Saturn makes 2 full revolutions around the Sun, and Jupiter - 5 revolutions.

At creation of year's calendars the following astronomical phenomena were used: alternation of day and night, change of lunar phases and alternation of seasons. Usage of different astronomical phenomena resulted in creation for the different peoples of three kinds of calendars: the lunar one based on the motion of the Moon, the solar one based on the motion of the Sun, and the lunar-solar one.

The Egyptian calendar built in the 4-m Millennium BC was one of the first solar calendars. In this calendar the year consisted of 365 days. The year was divided into 12 months equaling for 30 days in each; at the end of the year 5 holidays, which were not going into the month structure, were added. Thus, the Egyptian calendar year had the following structure: 365 = 12 ´ 30 + 5. Note that just the Egyptian calendar is the prototype of the modern calendar.

There is a question: why the Egyptians sectioned the calendar year into 12 months? You see there were calendars with other number of months in one year. For example, in the Maya calendar the year consisted of 18 months for 20 days in one month. The next question concerning to the Egyptian calendar is the following: why each month had equally 30 days? One may put some questions concerning to the Egyptian system of time measurement, in particular concerning to selection of such units of time, as hour, minute, second. In particular, there is a question: why the unit of hour was selected so that it was packed 24 times in the day, that is, why 1 day = 24 (2 ´ 12) hours? Further: why 1 hour = 60 minutes, and 1 minute = 60 seconds? The same questions concern to selection of the angular values units, in particular: why a circumference is divided into 360°, that is, why 2p = 360° = 12 ´ 30°? We can add to these questions and other ones, in particular: why the astronomers recognized expedient to consider what there are 12 "zodiacal" signs, though actually during the motion on the ecliptic the Sun intersects 13 cancellations? And more one "strange" question: why the Babylonian number system had a rather exotic basis, the number of 60?

Analyzing these questions, we discover, that in them with a surprising constancy four numbers are repeated: 12, 30, 60 and number 360, derivative from them, 360 = 12 ´ 30. There is a question: possibly there exists any scientific idea, which could give simple and logical explanation of usage of these numbers in the Egyptian calendar, their system of time and angle measurement?

For the answer this question we return once again to the regular dodecahedron, which geometrical relations are based on the golden section.

Dodecahedron

Earlier we established that the dodecahedron has 12 faces, 30 edges and 60 plane angles on the surface. But what surprise of the antique scientists was when they found out, that the cycles of the Solar system are expressed by the same numbers (the 12-year's cycle of Jupiter, the 30-year's cycle of Saturn and, at last, the 60-year's cycle of the Solar system). Thus, between such perfect spatial figure, as the dodecahedron and the Solar system there exists a steep mathematical connection. The antique scientists made such conclusion. It resulted also to the conclusion that the dodecahedron was put forward to the rank of the "main Universe figure", which symbolized "Harmony of the Universe". And then the Egyptians decided, that all their main systems (calendar system, systems of time and angle measurement) should correspond to numerical parameters of the dodecahedron! As according to the ancient ideas the motion of the Sun on the ecliptic had strictly circumferential nature then by selecting 12 Zodiac signs, the distance between which is equal 30°, the Egyptians surprised beautifully agreed the year motion of the Sun on the ecliptic with the structure of their calendar year: one month corresponded to moving of the Sun on the ecliptic between two adjacent Zodiac signs! Moreover, the movement of the Sun by the ecliptic on one grade corresponded to one day in the Egyptian calendar year! Thus the ecliptic was automatically was divided by 360°. By dividing each day into two parts and following to the dodecahedron, the Egyptians was divided then each half of day into 12 parts (12 faces of the dodecahedron) and by that introduced a hour, the major unit of time. By dividing one hour into 60 minutes (60 plane angle on the surface of the dodecahedron), the Egyptians by such way introduced a minute, the next relevant unit of time. Precisely also they introduced a second, the most small-sized for that period unit of time.

Thus, by selecting the dodecahedron as the main "harmonic" figure of the Universe and strictly following to its numerical characteristics 12, 30, 60, the Egyptians constructed the extremely orderly calendar, and also the systems of time and angle measurement. These systems was completely coordinated with their "Theory of Harmony " based on the golden proportion, as just this proportion underlies the dodecahedron.

Here such surprising conclusions follow from comparison of the dodecahedron with the Solar system. And if our hypothesis is correct (let somebody attempts to deny it), it follows from here hhat a lot of millennia the mankind lives according to the golden section! And each time, when we look at the index dial of our watch, which also is constructed by usage of the numerical characteristics of the dodecahedron 12, 30 and 60, we touch to the "Main Secret of Universe", the "Golden Section"!